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Calvary, 1543

  • oil paint, panel
  • 323 x 265 cm
  • Inv. S-52

Public Domain

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The Crucifixion by Maarten van Heemskerck comes from the convent of the Rich Clares in Ghent. Various aspects of the Passion have been brought together here in one scene. The crucified Christ hangs high above the crowd, between the good and the bad murderers. One soldier raises up a sponge soaked in vinegar to quench Jesus thirst, while another looks up in awe at the dying man. In the right foreground soldiers cast dice for Jesus clothes. On the left we see Mary swoon in the arms of the apostle John. At the foot of the cross Mary Magdalene is overcome with grief as she gazes up at the Messiah. The donor, wearing a priests surplice, kneels in the foreground on the left. His identity is not known. The beautifully executed horses in the background are not based on nature studies but on sketches Maarten van Heemskerck made of classical works when he visited Italy from 1532 to 1536.

Artist

Maarten van Heemskerck RKD
Heemskerk 1498 - Haarlem 1574
painters (artists)AAT

Title Calvary
Date 1543
Period 16th century
Signatures, inscriptions, and markings signature and year bottom left on a stone: MHemskerck / Fecit / 1543 [“HK” aaneen]
Collection paintings AAT
Object type oil paintings (visual works) AAT
Inventory number S-52
Acquisition credit
onbekend
Current whereabouts Work on display
Permalink https://mskgent.be/collection/work/data/S-52
IIIF Manifest https://imagehub.mskgent.be/iiif/3/152/manifest.json
Art & Architecture Thesaurus 300055874 religious symbolism AAT
300015636 landscapes AAT
Keywords Iconclass 11D Christ Iconclass
11D3 Christ as adult Iconclass
11D3121 'Vera Icon', held up by Veronica Iconclass
11F the Virgin Mary Iconclass
11H saints Iconclass
11H(JOHN THE BAPTIST) John the Baptist; possible attributes: book, reed cross, baptismal cup, honeycomb, lamb, staff Iconclass
11HH female saints Iconclass
11HH(MARY MAGDALENE) the penitent harlot Mary Magdalene; possible attributes: book (or scroll), crown, crown of thorns, crucifix, jar of ointment, mirror, musical instrument, palm-branch, rosary, scourge Iconclass
11HH(VERONICA) Veronica; possible attributes: 'Sudarium' (veil with the image of Christ) Iconclass
11Q751 (public) prayer Iconclass
25F animals Iconclass
25F2 mammals Iconclass
25H1 landscapes in the temperate zone Iconclass
25I city-view, and landscape with man-made constructions Iconclass
25I1411 lane, alley Iconclass
26A clouds Iconclass
31A211 (human) skull Iconclass
31A2516 arm or hand held in front of the body Iconclass
31A251611 hand holding the breast Iconclass
31A252 postures and gestures of arms and hands in relation to each other Iconclass
31A2523 hands against each other Iconclass
31A25551 index finger upwards Iconclass
31A51453 ointment-jar Iconclass
31B62 morphology of facial expression Iconclass
31B6211 looking upwards Iconclass
31B6214 weeping Iconclass
31B62141 tears Iconclass
41A housing Iconclass
41A1 civic architecture; edifices; dwellings Iconclass
41A14 urban housing Iconclass
41A771 container of metal: bucket, can, canister, drum, tin, etc. Iconclass
41D221 head-gear Iconclass
41D221(CAP) head-gear: cap Iconclass
41D221(HAT) head-gear: hat Iconclass
41D221(HEADSCARF) head-gear (HEADSCARF) Iconclass
41D2211 veil Iconclass
41D2332 shoes, sandals Iconclass
41D26511 gold-thread embroidery Iconclass
41D2656 belt, girdle, waistband Iconclass
41D266 ornaments, jewels Iconclass
44G32 executioner, hangman Iconclass
44G511 murderer Iconclass
45B the soldier; the soldier's life Iconclass
45C13(SABRE) hacking and thrusting weapons (SABRE) Iconclass
45C19(SHIELD) protective weapons: shield Iconclass
45C22 armour Iconclass
45C221 helmet Iconclass
45D313 private soldier Iconclass
46C131 riding a horse, ass, or mule; rider, horseman Iconclass
46C13141 horse Iconclass
46C131611 head-stall Iconclass
46C131612 bit Iconclass
46C131613 reins Iconclass
46C131614 saddle Iconclass
47D8(KNIFE) tools, aids, implements ~ crafts and industries: knife Iconclass
49L8 inscription Iconclass
73 New Testament Iconclass
73C public life of Christ: from his baptism until the Passion Iconclass
73D Passion of Christ Iconclass
73D58 the superscription: I(esus) N(azarenus) R(ex) I(udaeorum) ~ Christ's crucifixion Iconclass
73D6 the crucifixion of Christ: Christ's death on the cross; Golgotha (Matthew 27:45-58; Mark 15:33-45; Luke 23:44-52; John 19:25-38) Iconclass
73D625 bystanders at the foot of the cross, among whom Mary, Mary Magdalene and John the Evangelist; Mary may be shown swooning Iconclass
73D643 crucified Christ with Mary, John, and Mary Magdalene Iconclass
73D6712 loin-cloth ~ particularities of crucifixion scenes Iconclass
73D6714 blood spouting from Christ's wounds Iconclass
73D82(CROWN OF THORNS) crown of thorns ~ instruments of the Passion Iconclass
73D82(DICE) single instruments of the Passion (DICE) Iconclass
73D82(HAMMER) single instruments of the Passion (HAMMER) Iconclass
73D82(LANCE) lance ~ instruments of the Passion Iconclass
73D82(NAILS) nails ~ instruments of the Passion Iconclass
73D82(PINCERS) single instruments of the Passion (PINCERS) Iconclass
73D82(SPONGE) single instruments of the Passion (SPONGE) Iconclass
School / Style Renaissance AAT
Note des tableaux dessins et estampes déposés dans la ci-devant école de l'abbaye de Baudeloo. Ceux marqués d'un K sont conformes à la note du 10 ventôse an V, trouvés au quartier de l'abbé de Saint-Pierre / Charles Piot. - [s.l.] : [s.n.], [s.a.] (nr. 297)
Catalogue du musée de peinture de la ville de Gand, 1900 / Louis Maeterlinck. - Gand : Imprimerie Victor Van Doosselaere, 1900 (nr. 21)
Le Crucifiement, par Martin van Veen, dit Heemskerk / Louis Maeterlinck. - [s.l.] : [s.n.], [s.a.] (nr. 431)
Martin van Heemskerck : Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des Romanismus in der niederländischen Malerei des XVI. Jahrhunderts / Leon Preibisz. - Leipzig : Verlag Von Klinkhardt und Biermann, 1911 (p. 27)
Die altniederländische Malerei : Die Antwerpener Manieristen ; Adriaen Ysenbrant / Max Julius Friedländer. - Leiden : A.W. Sijthoff's uitgeversmij, 1934 (dl. 13, p. 159, nr. 198)
Drie schilderijen van Marten van Heemskerck te Gent / Domien Roggen. - [s.l.] : [s.n.], [s.a.] (p. 292)
Museum van Schoone Kunsten : Catalogus ; Oude Meesters, Schilderstukken, teekeningen, plaatsneden (met geschiedkundig overzicht) / Maurice Dupuis, Georges Charles Nicolas Marie Hulin de Loo, Fritz Van Loo. - Gent : Drukkerij F. De Vos, 1938 ; Gent : Stad Gent, 1938 (p. 68-69)
De Noord-Nederlandsche schilderkunst / Godefridus Joannes Hoogewerff. - Den Haag : Martinus Nijhoff, 1936-1947 (dl. 4, p. 152-323-324; dl. 5, p. 155, nr. 13)
Flemish Painters : Historical Survey (1430-1830) ; Dictionary ; Bibliographies ; Volume One - Two / Reginald Howard Wilenski. - London : Faber and Faber Limited, 1960 (dl. 1, p. 571)
Early Netherlandish Painting / Max Julius Friedländer, Gerard Lemmens, Henri Pauwels. - Leyden : A.W. Sijthoff, 1967-1976 ; Brussels : La Connaissance, 1967-1976 (dl. 13, p. 90, nr. 198; pl. 100, nr. 198)
Maerten van Heemskerck and Dutch humanism in the sixteenth century / Ilja Maria Veldman. - Maarssen : Gary Schwartz, 1977 (p. 26-36)
Maerten van Heemskerck : Die Gemälde / Rainald Grosshans. - Berlin : Horst Böttcher, 1980 (p. 158)
Mythologie en Maniërisme in de Nederlanden : 1570-1630 ; Schilderijen-Tekeningen / Andrée De Bosque. - Antwerpen : Mercatorfonds, 1985 (p. 80-84)
Kunst voor de beeldenstorm : Noordnederlandse kunst 1525-1580 (tentoonstelling Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, 13.9 - 23.11.1986) / Jan Piet Filedt Kok, Wouter Th. Kloek, Willy Halsema-Kubes. - Den Haag : Staatsuitgeverij, 1986 ; Amsterdam : Rijksmuseum, 1986 (p. 70-71; nr. 111)
Museum voor Schone Kunsten Gent / Robert Hoozee. - Brussel : Ministerie van de Vlaamse Gemeenschap, 1988 (p. 27, 28)
Museum voor Schone Kunsten Gent = Museum of Fine Arts Ghent / Claudie De Guillebon, Jacques Ostier, Robert Hoozee, Monique Tahon-Vanroose. - Parijs : Association des Amis de "Musées 2000", 1989 (p. 23 (ill.))
Allgemeines Lexikon der bildenden Künstler von der Antike bis zur Gegenwart / Ulrich Thieme, Felix Becker. - Leipzig : Verlag von Wilhelm Engelmann, 1907-1950 (dl. 16, p. 228)
Het Museum voor Schone Kunsten Gent : een keuze uit de mooiste werken / Patrick De Rynck. - Gent : Ludion, 2007 (p. 20-21 (ill.))
Museum voor Schone Kunsten Gent : Catalogus schilderkunst ; Deel I: 14de - 18de eeuw ; Deel II: 19de - 20ste eeuw / Robert Hoozee, Johan De Smet, Bruno Fornari, Ruth Monteyne. - Gent : Museum voor Schone Kunsten Gent, 2007 (p. 100-101 (ill.))
Museum voor Schone Kunsten Gent : De collectie (tentoonstelling vanaf 21 maart 2021) / Johan De Smet, Bart Ooghe, Frederica Van Dam, Lieven Van Den Abeele, Cathérine Verleysen. - Gent : Museum voor Schone Kunsten Gent, 2021
Musée des Beaux-Arts de Gand : La Collection (exposition dès le 21 mars 2021) / Johan De Smet, Bart Ooghe, Frederica Van Dam, Lieven Van Den Abeele, Cathérine Verleysen. - Gand : Musée des Beaux-Arts de Gand, 2021
Die altniederländische Malerei : Pieter Bruegel und Nachträge zu den früheren Bänden / Max Julius Friedländer. - Leiden : A.W. Sijthoff's uitgeversmij, 1937
Die altniederländische Malerei : Joos van Cleve - Jan Provost - Joachim Patenier / Max Julius Friedländer. - Leiden : A.W. Sijthoff's uitgeversmij, 1934
Die altniederländische Malerei : Anthonis Mor und seine Zeitgenossen / Max Julius Friedländer. - Leiden : A.W. Sijthoff's uitgeversmij, 1936
Die altniederländische Malerei : Pieter Coeck - Jan van Scorel / Max Julius Friedländer. - Leiden : A.W. Sijthoff's uitgeversmij, 1935
Die altniederländische Malerei : Lucas van Leyden und andere holländische Meister seiner Zeit / Max Julius Friedländer. - Leiden : A.W. Sijthoff's uitgeversmij, 1934
Die altniederländische Malerei : Jan Gossart - Bernart van Orley / Max Julius Friedländer. - Leiden : A.W. Sijthoff's uitgeversmij, 1934
Die altniederländische Malerei : Quentin Massys / Max Julius Friedländer. - Leiden : A.W. Sijthoff's uitgeversmij, 1934
Die altniederländische Malerei : Memling und Gerard David / Max Julius Friedländer. - Leiden : A.W. Sijthoff's uitgeversmij, 1934
Die altniederländische Malerei : Geertgen van Haarlem und Hieronymus Bosch / Max Julius Friedländer. - Leiden : A.W. Sijthoff's uitgeversmij, 1934
Die altniederländische Malerei : Hugo van der Goes / Max Julius Friedländer. - Leiden : A.W. Sijthoff's uitgeversmij, 1934
Die altniederländische Malerei : Dierick Bouts und Joos van Gent / Max Julius Friedländer. - Leiden : A.W. Sijthoff's uitgeversmij, 1934
Die altniederländische Malerei : Rogier van der Weyden und der Meister van Flémalle / Max Julius Friedländer. - Leiden : A.W. Sijthoff's uitgeversmij, 1934
Die altniederländische Malerei : Die van Eyck - Petrus Christus / Max Julius Friedländer. - Leiden : A.W. Sijthoff's uitgeversmij, 1934
Die altniederländische Malerei / Max Julius Friedländer. - Leiden : A.W. Sijthoff's uitgeversmij, 1934-1937
Old Testament Subjects in the Prints of Maarten van Heemskerck: "Als een claere spiegele der tegenwoordige tijden" / Eleanor A. Saunders. - Michigan : UMI Dissertation Services, 1978
Von Van Eyck bis Bruegel : Die frühen niederländischen Maler / Max Julius Friedländer. - Köln : Phaidon-Verlag, 1965
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